Just ran across an article in Christianity Today called "The Real Differences Between Mormons and Orthodox Christians." And it's pretty good!
The main take-home idea is that Mormons and historical Christian denominations don't actually differ that much on questions of faith and works or belief in Jesus. Where Latter-day Saints do differ most from others is in our belief about the divine nature and potential of humans.
So what if we emphasized that belief more when invited to explain our theology?
We believe in God, we believe (in a very radical sense) that we are God's children and can become like Him, and we believe that we need Jesus' help for the divinity within us to grow.
We also believe that we are closest to the divine when we serve in our families, communities, and world. And we believe that God has called forth a prophet-led people in the past and again in our era to protect and transmit a heritage of service and faith.
This is pretty close, I think, to what we tell people now--but wouldn't it be nice to emphasize our most divergent belief from the beginning?